Judas Morality or the Armenian Case in Georgia. Part III

26.04.23 16:00

The fact that Georgians were descendants of courageous and militant, noble and honest people, which history calls Alarodians, informs every historical document.


Dear reader, if it were not said in the words of Elijah, King Simon and Sachino Baratashvili are unshakable "boulders" laid in the foundation of Georgian history and who knows how many more... nameless and nameless self-sacrifices Georgia remembers...


If we look back a little bit we will see similar betrayal that took place on a hot August day in 1225 and which went down in the history of Georgia as the Battle of Garnisi (day of the great betrayal). As we already know, Dimitri I did not want to cede the throne to his legitimate older brother David and David's son Dimitri (Demna). Dimitri I gouged out his brother's eyes (probably to avenge his father, David Agmashenebeli (the Builder) for his mother and then had him killed, but even this was not enough - he accused his son David of killing his father. Then of his own will he left the secular life and enthroned his beloved son George III; for the forgiveness of his sins he turned to the church, took monastic vows and wrote the beautiful song "Thou art the True Vine", which is very suspicious, as no soul burdened with so many sins could have created such a song. It more resembled the handwriting of his great father David Agmashenebeli. Stole from his father? We do not know, if so, we forgive the reader. George III ruled Georgia, prosperous and strengthened thanks to David Aghmashenebeli. There was little he was obliged to do - just to protect the borders. But... Whatever atrocities his father failed to do was left for him to do - it was necessary to remove the rightful heir to the throne Demna Batonishvili, a noble and talented knight.


George III plotted a treacherous plan. It was not so easy to carry out, as the Georgian aristocracy was still firmly established in the Agmashenebeli country, which was in great opposition to Dmitri. But the Tsar organised everything very quickly, so Giorgi analysed his father's past well and trusted the matter to time. He ruled the country as if he had no memory of his tsarist obligations, laws and popular assemblies...


The nobility stood on end and demanded that the Tsar install a legitimate heir to the throne. The insidious George had already had his answer ready - they were all thrown into prison! All who dared to raise their voices. Demna's father-in-law, Ivane Orbeliani, was the ruler of Anisi. Son-in-law and father-in-law were locked up in the fortress. But the good Demna was deceived by his uncle's treacherous promises. The villainous uncle castrated the handsome nephew and threw him in prison, but this was not enough for him and he ordered his death. Ivane Orbeliani did not retreat and a bloody battle ensued...


This is when George III remembered the Armenian Kurds and declared them Mkhargdzeli. It was them and many other unnamed rascals that the insidious king used and completely exterminated ancient Georgian surnames Samdzivari, Shavliani, Emkhvari, Parnavaziani and Orbeliani ... Some of the Orbeliani took refuge in Armenia and became emancipated!


Passions boiled over in the royal court! According to a legend, for the rest of her life Tamar could not forgive her father for Demna's death, and did not even visit her father before his death... This talented and noble, a true Christian - spent her nights knitting kisets, and during the day she gave them for sale to her servants, and with the money she received she lit candles in church... That is, she bought candles with her own hard-earned money to atone for her father's sins.


But so great were the deeds committed by Dimitri and George III that Tamar's life alone would not have been enough to atone for them... After her father's death Tamar restored ranks and dignity to the surviving Georgian aristocracy. Tamar died, then Lasha... During Rusudan's reign... in 1225, north of Dvin, at Garnis fortress in front of 200 000 army of Jalal ad Din to defend the dignity of Georgia, the Toreli brothers, known in history as Shalva and Ivane Akhaltsikheli...


Remember the reader, the most miserable day for Georgia after David the Builder came just then! Rusudan handed the royal banner to Commander-in-Chief Ivane Atabagh, Mkhargdzeli!..! She would later regretfully say, "Oh, envy, the beginning of all evils!" Whom was Ivane Mkharrdzelie jealous of? After the queen, he was the most influential person in the kingdom! But... the commander-in-chief was jealous of the true sons of the fatherland of Toreli...!


Both sides spent the night peacefully. Early in the morning, Jalal ordered the attack to begin. The commander-in-chief ordered the advance party of the army, the Tor Javakhis, to cut them off. Ahead of the Javakhis came the heroes of the century Shalva and Ivane Toreli with naked swords... The enemy was advancing like the sea, the Javakhians on the other hand... The brave men with lion hearts were but a small troop. Shalva immediately sent messengers to Mhargdzeli... report the numbers of the enemy and ask that the main force take the offensive...


The Javakhis fought to the last drop of blood... Shalva had sent a messenger to Mhargdzeli for the umpteenth time, but... No reply was forthcoming...


The Akhaltsikhs, though few in number, 'fought a strong war...'. The horses had been killed by both brothers, now fighting on foot... Jalal was surprised at their courage... There was no escape in sight from the cruel Mhargdzeli... With broken swords, the Toreli brothers fought, bleeding, the Jawahis and Meshis gathered their last strength. A few men could not withstand the carnage and retreated to the rock to gather their strength. Ivane Toreli was among them. Suddenly someone threw a big block off the cliff, right on the head of Ivane and the block threw Shalva's brother off... On the orders of Mhargdzeli, the Georgian royal army did not take part in the war! 4,000 Javakhians and Meskhs fell on the battlefield.


Exhausted, but nevertheless... Shalva of Akhaltsikhe was captured alive, the sultan was delighted with his courage... Ivane Mkhargdzeli clearly betrayed Georgia and thereby opened the way for the enemy towards Tbilisi... Who knows, maybe it was his order to drop that stone on the head of Ivane of Akhaltsikhe? Who knows... Jalal gave Tbilisi hell... Burned down, destroyed the whole city and wiped out the population... 100 000 Georgians, who did not obey and did not step on the icon of the Virgin, were drowned in Mtkvari!


Historically, there are documents that the gates of Tbilisi fortress were opened to Jalal by people of Ivano Mkharrdzeli, Armenians - so Mkharrdzeli repaid for the Georgian good ... who for the sake of distraction renounced monophysitism and adopted Orthodoxy ... This is how the bloody pages of the Battle of Garnisi in the history of Georgia in 1225 were written... This happened because of the political blindness of George III ... After Garnisi, everything continues to this day... The ulcers turned into cancer - from child to child descendants of these two brothers passed Georgian hatred and over the centuries there was no worthy surgeon, who would have cut out this ulcer ...


It is true that even today orthodox Georgians are known for their humanity, but in the matter of faith they have always been strong and invulnerable. Let us turn to the chronicle "History and Praise of the Crowned Rulers". Every Georgian knows that Queen Tamar was deeply devout. She spent her nights in prayer. The Georgian aristocracy and the lower classes were devout and pious, as evidenced by the huge number of churches and monasteries of extraordinary architecture, which had survived many invasions.


Once, during a church service came the Mkhargzdeli brothers, sons of the commander-in-chief of George III Sargis - Zakharia and Ivane. The Georgian nobility gathered in the church, while Catholicos John conducted the service. At the end of the service, when the priest was distributing prosphora (liturgical bread), Zakharia came towards him. Despite Zacharias' high title, the priest did not give him the wafers. Zacharias tried to take it by force! Watching all this the Catholicos John, "excited as fire", became indignant and struck the heretic Zacharias.


Here is how this fact is recounted in the chronicle: "All influential persons were also there: the companion of the angels, the God-inspired Catholicos John, several bishops and other notables. When John the Catholicos offered the bloodless sacrifice and celebrated the liturgy, all the worthy people began to partake of the prosphora. Zakaria also wanted to get it, but priests did not let him have it, as he was Armenian by faith. Embarrassed, Zacarias dared to take it and eat it. The Catholicos, inflamed as fire, strongly rebuked him for it and said: "No orthodox man will voluntarily give you Armenians the prosphora during the service, but to steal it, is there really a dog [capable of doing so]?"


Ashamed, Zachariah went back to his chamber. And after this unusual and dignified fact, the representatives of Echmiadzin have the audacity to demand Georgian churches? Is this a gift, an appropriation, a taking away or what should we call it? The Georgian Orthodox religion will not tolerate their heretical religion! Thus, they had no right (this has already been seen) to build their churches on Georgian territory! Now let's go deep into history and trace when this strong chain was broken, when did the Armenian population reach Georgia and where did they settle first? There is abundant factual material describing the population of Tbilisi and Georgia, but the Armenians are nowhere to be seen until the time of Shah Abbas! It is a small number, 100 people each, who fled from the enemy and were sheltered by David the Builder and settled separately, so that they did not want to get close to each other, but they did not try.


Do not forget that at the end of the IX century, the Armenians captured Georgia, weakened by the Arabs, in particular, a large part of Kvemo Kartli, Tashir region and possessed this territory for 30 years. Bagrat IV drove them out of those places and restored Georgian primordial territory. As we already know, the Seljuk Turks soon completely abolished the Armenian kingdom and captured Kvemo Kartli. David the Builder had already expelled the Seljuk Turks in 1118, and returned his old possessions. As for Armenia, it no longer existed as a political entity. Georgia, by the grace of an ingenious policy, terrorised the Muslim world for two centuries. In any case, the country retained its power by inertia in the centuries that followed. And now came the fateful century and years when the question "to be or not to be" was poignantly put...


Mihail Tamarashvili wrote in his book "Answer to Armenian Writers" in 1904 that "Shah Abbas took more than 50 000 Georgian families and settled them in Shirvan, Mazendaran and Armenia and in their place he settled Persians and Armenians". "During the reign of Nadir Shah (1687-1747), 80,000 families were exiled to Persia and in their place the same Persians settled most of the Armenians...!". Thus, the settlement of Armenians began no later than the XVII century! And even at the will of the Persians! So why did the Persians need settlement of Armenians in Georgia? The answer is obvious: the Armenian population has always been loyal and a supportive force for the Persians! Although they were traders by nature, they served Persia well, and then Turkey. What this service was, Georgia saw well after the shameless and heinous betrayal of Korganashvili, the Meliks Mejnuni and Abo.


So, the settlement of Armenians in Georgia begins in the 17th century. From the second half of the 18th century, thanks to the talent of the warlord Erekle II, Kartli and Kakheti became stronger and Muslim khanates were annexed to them. According to the story of an Armenian priest, 'in 1780 King Erekle moved Armenians from Yerevan to Tbilisi and other places'. The same source gives information that in 1804, when Tsitsishvili defeated the Persians in Kars, the Armenian archbishop was in Georgia and brought all Armenians from there to the suburbs of Tbilisi, in Tapa-Taglishi, some brought to Tbilisi and arranged them in Avlabari, where he built a church. In 1820 another large group was added to these Armenians, which founded Karvasl (Klaproth, Gamba - M. Tamarashvili, "Answer to Armenian Writers", 1904, "Armenia, Enemy or Friend", p.173, Tbilisi, 2006).


Erekle II intended to put the country back on its feet with the help of Armenian capital. But he failed (by the grace of Ordzhonikidze the silver deposits in Alaverdi are now part of Armenia), so at one period he made certain concessions to the Armenians, as he was going to create a state, like in the era of David the Builder and apparently knew nothing about the Russian-Echmiadzin alliance, officially formalized in 1769.


Later, Erekle guessed the "tricks" of the Russians and Armenians, and the fact that Tsarism did not need a "strong" Georgia at all, and again began to look for allies among Western states. He regarded the Emperor of Germany as such, and tried to correspond with the help of the patriarchs, although none of his letters reached the addressee. For unknown reasons patriarchs were killed on the road. Understandably, an Armenian spy network was already well established in the country. One way or another, authorities let Catholic missionaries to act freely but even this was not long and soon the Tsarist authorities (having turned Kartli-Kakheti into its province) "clipped" their wings (M. Tamarashvili).


According to this information Armenians already had some capital in their hands. Let us remember relations between Armenians and Shah Abbas, who created all conditions for trade and enrichment of Armenians, who did not spare any subsidies, loans and gifts for them. Armenian churches of remarkable architecture were built in Persia by the grace of the Shah. That is, they felt at ease at the court of the Shah, as "their" loyal people. The question is why? At what cost? Was Korganashvili and Mejnun-Abo spying activities hidden behind a mask of trade? Surely so!


It is therefore not surprising that the Armenian Meliks brought some capital into Tbilisi and started buying up land, but it was not enough. The Armenians gave gifts to Queen Darejan. She also brought near "loyal Armenian" Osef Korganashvili - again Korganashvili, reader! Osefa Korganashvili restored Tsarina Darejan against Erekle and thus prevented her to join Imereti. At the advice and instigation of the same Osefa, Darejan forced Erekle to draw up a new hereditary will. It was this will that caused the rift between the brothers.


What did Korganashvili wish for? To bring discord into the royal family so that heir to the throne George XII could easily be placed in the hands of the Russian or Persian empires, it made no difference to him in whose hands. He (Korganashvili) would have fulfilled his mission. Another fact is noteworthy: Erekle sent several patriarchs to Europe on a special mission. None arrived to their destination, why? They were killed on the way... By the grace of Darejan, Korganashvili knew all the secrets of the court!


Another Armenian, Joseph Argutashvili, who introduced himself as a descendant of Mkhargdzeli, was a frequent visitor at Erekle's court. General Lazarev, who was sent from St. Petersburg to monitor George XII before his death and even contributed to his death (he was actually under house arrest), was constantly receiving advice and instructions from Iosif Argutashvili. Solomon Leonidze and General Otar Amilakhvari were imprisoned and, at the cost of their compatriots' lives they were freed and transferred to Imereti, but...


On February 16, 1801 Lazarev gathered aristocracy of Tbilisi in the Temple of Sion and read the manifesto of Emperor Paul I by which Iberia was to be forever joined to Russia. "While reading this manifesto, Catholicos Anton II appeared to be standing with a gloomy face and very sad, in invisible tears he was mourning the political death of his homeland...".


This Manifesto delighted and made the Armenians happy. The Armenian Catholicos Joseph Argunashvili held a festive service in honour of the above-mentioned Manifesto at the Vank church and delivered a fervent speech in the presence of Armenians, in which he noted the boundless joy and bliss of the Armenian people caused by the annexation of Georgia to Russia. It should also be noted that the noble Armenians under the leadership of Joseph Argutashvili himself, through their policy and efforts contributed to the death of Iberian kingdom and establishment of Russian dominance in Georgia, which was appreciated by the Russian government: hundreds of thousands of Armenians from the Ottoman Empire and Persia moved to Georgia and gave them more rights. Joseph Argutashvili and his supporters wanted to restore the Armenian kingdom with the help of Russian Empire and the blood of Georgians! Joseph saw his nephew Solomon as king, for whom he secretly made a royal crown in Russia. On the ruins of Iberia they wanted to restore their happiness, and that is why they were so enthusiastic about the Russian rule in Georgia and contributed to everything" ("History of the Georgian people", S. Kvarian, p. 40, 1918).


Russia cruelly and immorally deceived Georgia. Deceived the Georgian people. Did not fulfil a single point of the treaty. Russian soldiers and officers plunged impoverished Georgian people into a terrible situation. We will not talk about reasons of the uprisings as this is not a subject of our discussion. The advantage was on the side of Tsarevich Alexander. The whole of Georgia was looking to him for salvation. Alexander Chavchavadze, the only son of Garsevan Chavchavadze, godson of the emperor, also took part in the uprising.


The governor-in-chief Rtishchev appointed a reward of 200 chervonnyi (i.e. 6 000 roubles) for the capture of Tsarevich Alexander - this was quite a lot of money! "So much gold did not attract a single poor Tatar to give away Alexander, the son of the Tsar Erekle, who was hiding among them". Three months later the Armenian Joseph Bubutashvili told Rtischev through a spy that on August 25 Tsarevich Alexander left Yerevan for Kartli and that he took all measures to catch him. On Rtishchev's orders all roads were immediately blocked, but Alexander still slipped past the guards, crossed the Mtkvari and went up to Tianeti". "... Several Armenians took part in the uprising; Avetik Beg served the Tsarevich Arexander well, Katso Akhanov created an entire army and fought alongside the Kakhetians against the Russians, but in general, the Armenian people and especially their bourgeoisie were clearly on the side of the Russian government. Many Armenians were not ashamed of their shameful role as spies, and kept the Russians informed of every move and movement of the Georgians. Such a contribution by the Armenians was deservedly praised by the governor-in-chief Rtischev and he asked the emperor for a so-called 'charter' for them, as a sign of his supreme trust and gratitude for their loyalty' (S. Kvarian, 'History of the Georgian People', 1918, p.109).


The Armenians' espionage is proved by Rtischev's personal letter to Emperor Alexander I: "...the government here (i.e. the Russians) should be grateful to the Armenians for finding out in time and in advance what the rebels were planning and where their flat was. The army that was scattered all over Kakheti and cut off from each other, if they found out anything about each other it was thanks to Armenians who were happy and glad to fulfil this dangerous mission and sometimes said goodbye to their lives out of loyalty to their work". This is how the Armenian population hated the Georgians! But most importantly, Rtischev forever "branded" Armenians as spies, which outweighed all the gold of the world and caused hatred and squeamishness in every society. Subsequently, the Russians themselves did not trust these duplicitous and hypocritical, disguised, flirting people (Golitsyn).


Then the Russians moved hundreds of thousands of Armenians from Turkey and Persia - a politically supportive nucleus. If in Erekle's time 100-200 Armenian families lived in Tbilisi, 50 families each in Sighnaghi and Telavi, Paskevich resettled them at once in undefined numbers. Here, gentlemen! The time to settle the Armenians! Reasons with their own results and all at the expense of hatred towards Georgians... Throughout history, there are only two Armenians, friends of Georgians, helpers of Tsarevich Alexander - Avetik Beg and Katso Akhanov. There was another great personality, a great friend of the Georgian people - Hovhannes Tumanyan, who exiled his own sons from Tbilisi to Yerevan in 1918: "If you fight against Georgians, I will curse you like a father. We do not forget anything, gentlemen, Hovhannes Tumanyan, who was not rich himself, donated 100 rubles to the Georgian university! In his economic situation this was a lot of money! For Georgians, however, unselfish friendship! History is made of documentary material. It remembers both good and bad things.


Russian policy in Georgia since 1801 was clearly wrong. It is impossible to achieve more by force than by goodwill, by justice. Russia was well aware that Georgia's voice in the Caucasus was decisive. Georgia trusted this by signing the agreement, but what did Russia do in return? They gathered the population and nobility in the Temple of Zion, put General Lazarev's men at the door to prevent anyone from coming out and announced to the people... that Georgia no longer existed...


Such a courageous and spiritually rich people (as well as the unctuous Russian-friendly Armenian people) would have struggled to come to terms with such humiliation. And they did not! Russia put salt in the wound, pouring oil on the fire, Russian soldiers and officers with the Georgian people were behaving like savages, courageous people were killed, tortured, women were raped. Several uprisings followed. Simon Kvariani's book contains a lot of facts that are difficult to even read. The impression remains that they were savages and did not know how to communicate with people, or did such abominations on purpose. They were not even ashamed of the men in the family, they desecrated Georgian women that way! "They drove men and women out of their homes and tied them to a cart. Whether we gave them water, food or bribes, it was all the same, they still whipped us endlessly, there was no justice for us...". (S. Kvariani, "History of the Georgian People", 1918, p.88). Alexander Kazbegi wonderfully described their attitude in his immortal stories.


This cruel policy was not pursued by Russia towards Armenians and Armenia! Why? Wasn't Russian policy part of the "Armenian cause"? The tsarist court was full of spies, just remember the reports of Rtischev, Yermolov and other heads of the court, which unanimously stressed the activities of the Armenian spy network in Georgia! The aim of Armenians was to destroy Georgian population with hands of Russian soldiers!


General Lazarev's contribution to his people cannot be diminished. He was a descendant of that Armenian Lazarev, who exiled Teymuraz II with a broken heart to Russia. He did everything to make George XII draw up that shameful will and then not even bring a doctor to the dying man. Lazarev had forgotten that Georgian aristocracy was formed thousands of years ago by its own peculiar traditions and was not like Armenians or Russians or any other nation. He (Lazarev, aka Lazarian) stormed into Queen Mariam's bedroom, pulled down the blanket, grabbed her legs, of course to make her get up and move out of Tbilisi as quickly as possible. Imagine, reader, who knows a bit about the Georgian soul, Georgian woman and Georgian family, what an insult this ignorant general caused to the whole of Georgia with his behaviour! Of course, no one would have forgiven ignorant general with this insolence and he was immediately struck with a dagger on the spot. There are two versions. One of them says that the queen stabbed him and the second one says that it was Niko Khimshiashvili who was a doorkeeper. When he could not stop the general he followed him into the room to take him out. But it seems that the disrespectful act towards the Queen happened so quickly that Khimshiashvili was petrified for a moment and immediately killed the General with a single blow and fled to Turkey himself. The Queen took the blame!


In this way, the Armenians decided to "strangle" the already sick Georgia with the hands of Russian co-religionists. Unfortunately, Russia had no idea... The Armenian bourgeoisie had gold-plated Paskevich, and he did not delay in punctually fulfilling their wishes. Thousands of Armenian families from Bayazet, Arzrum and Kars were settled in Javakheti, Tsalka and Tbilisi. Paskevich established a military base in Akhaltsikhe, on which he erected a 15-metre high stele and engraved the words: 'Own, this is your land! By order of Paskevich and later commanders-in-chief the local population was exterminated and those who were left alive - Orthodox Christians, Georgian peasants and the Muslim nobility - were forcibly deported from these lands to Turkey, while the lands were given to the treasury.


Autocephaly of the Georgian church was abolished and it was subordinated to the Russian Synod. An exarch was appointed, monasteries were devastated, churches were deprived of their land and given to the treasury too. From the treasury, these estates were given free of charge to the resettled Armenian population, who would later say: "Georgia did not exist, this is Armenia!" Yes, gentlemen! Such a brutal policy was pursued by Russia, relying on Armenian spies! And now, the time has come when the great sons of the fatherland Ilia, Akaki, Jakob Gogebashvili and the Catholicos of Georgia himself Peter Kharischirashvili, under the leadership of Michael Tamarashvili sounded the alarm in the name of saving national identity!


Fancifully, in the 1830s Paskevich referred to Armenians as Grigorians, and this in order to somehow justify himself in the face of the orthodox imperial family for helping Armenians and his special sympathy. Did the Armenians themselves believe this, or were they trying to hide their heretical monophysitism from the Russians?


Amazingly, didn't they understand, and don't they understand today too, that it is impossible to hide this kind of thing! Peter Knafei (Petros Mkatsvreli) legalized the fast of the dog in the Council of Dvin. Later on, the remains of the Armenian monk Subal Barkis, martyred by the Arabs, were transferred to the erected Petromchram, and his name was appended to the name of the fast of alajar (arajavor) in order to justify the name of Peter as a caster and sorcerer (M. Sabinin, p.631 - "The modern sub-sarvid Armenian is alajar, the fast of the dog").


Since the fifth century several Armenian Catholicoses have cursed the Council of Chalcedon and its followers. Didn't the Russian royal court and Russian Orthodox aristocracy know this? On the orders of the Czar himself, all conditions were created in Georgia for the enrichment of the Armenians and the impoverishment of the Georgians!


The fruit of Vorontsov's imagination was the Ortachala project, which belonged entirely to the Armenians! This is how the Armenians in Tbilisi (then Baku, all the oil industrialists were Armenians) got their feet, yesterday they were dirty longshoremen on the Turkish railway in fezzes, or robbers, or thieves, resellers and swindlers, but today they are already millionaires. That is why Grigori Artsrun published a map of "Armenia" on which half of Georgia, if not more, along with the Gori district was seized.


It was on this occasion that Akaki expressed his displeasure. Should he not have said anything? Maybe he should have said thank you? Akaki's reprimand angered Artsrun and he rudely replied: "What do you understand, the whole fate of Armenia is on my neck", Akaki, as usual, jokingly replied: "I believe, sir, I do, Armenia is on my neck and Ararat on my back. What more can I wish for, you are a happy man".

Artsruni was hunched over and naturally became angry and resentful.


Constantly complaining about us, arguing with us, calling us invaders of churches, lands, country, Tbilisi, and we shouldn't point this out? Shouldn't we explain that they are doing evil things? Maybe it would have been better for Georgians to drop their swords and squander all their wealth, land and peasants (unhappy people who will be humiliated later!) in Ortachala Gardens. This is how almost half of Georgia was destroyed and this was a policy that Russia pursued with the help of a dirty spy network created by Argutashvili! With the help of Russia Armenians bought lands in Gori and Dusheti districts, Adjameti forest, where they cut down a unique yew forest that was valued more than gold. The wood was sold to France by weight (this wood does not spoil sea iodine). Not far from Zestafoni a swamp was formed, a symbol of Georgian carelessness, because no other trees could grow in the place of yew trees ("Armenia, Enemy or Brother", p. 266, Tbilisi, 2006).


Dmitri Bakradze was particularly harsh. Naturally, Armenians did not pay attention to the speeches of Ilia, Akaki, Bakradze. Quietly, secretly, flattering Russian officials and informing on Georgians, did their dirty work and slowly seized all Georgian lands, water, wealth, everything, except true faith and genetically transmitted noble and brave soul! Let's leave behind the XIX century with its great pain and obscure political situation in Georgia.


(to be continued)


David Maisuradze,

Master of Political Science

Read: 676

Write comment

(In their comments, readers should avoid expressing religious, racial and national discrimination, not use offensive and derogatory expressions, as well as appeals that are contrary to the law)

You can enter 512 characters

News feed